• Development of the surgical technique for elephant vasectomies.
  • Development of a safe and efficient anesthesia and surgical positioning method for free ranging bull elephants.
  • Proven capability to perform up to three vasectomies in a day, thereby improving operational efficiency and cost effective use of resources.
  • 43 vasectomies in wild free-ranging bull elephants in South Africa and Swaziland game reserves and national parks.
  • Collection of four years of behavioral data that indicates normal elephant behavior including musth, breeding (without impregnation), and maintenance of social status.
  • Partnership development with the University of Pretoria's™ Faculty of Veterinary Science at Onderstepoort, local wildlife veterinarians, private and governmental game reserves, and national parks.
  • Establishment of the Elephant Population Management Program, a registered non-profit NGO corporation in Colorado in November 2009.  Our Board of Directors consists of eight individuals from the US and South Africa and a Scientific Advisory Board of seven individuals from the US and South Africa.
  • Tax exempt status (501.C.3) in the US was awarded in April 2010.

This conservation effort maintains a commitment to animal welfare by practicing the highest standards of medicine and surgery.  The equipment, expertise, and protocols developed from this work have contributed greatly to surgery, medicine, and anesthesia in captive mega-vertebrate species.


Elephant under anesthesia